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Re: [IP] Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes.

John Wilkinson wrote:
International Conference on Gastrointestinal Surgery to Treat Type 2  

Recent studies demonstrate that some bariatric operations and  
procedures can ameliorate diabetes. Consequently, these operations  
are being used throughout the world to treat diabetes in association  
with obesity, and increasingly, for diabetes alone.

Ricardo Responds:
Stacey and Kathleen, you both may be interested in a recent study  
regarding fat loss.

Researchers at Penn State think they have isolated the enzyme that  
stops the synthesis of fat in the body. The interesting thing is they  
were able to trigger a starvation response in mice. By depriving the  
mice of leucine (an amino acid), they were able to stop the mice from  
synthesizing new fat cells and start drawing from their current fat  
stores.  No drug involved in their treatment, only the minimization  
of leucine intake.

The findings are also applicable to those who fail to gain weight  
despite sufficient calorie intake. It appears that calories alone are  
not sufficient for weight gain if leucine levels are low.

I don't know if the treatment is ready for prime time, but quoting  
the researchers:

"These findings are important for treating two major problems in the  
world," Cavener said. "The starvation response we discovered can  
repress fat synthesis and induce the body to consume virtually all of  
its stored fat within a few weeks of leucine deprivation. Because  
this response causes a striking loss of fatty tissue, we may be able  
to formulate a powerful new treatment for obesity".

Reprint below:

Trick the Body into Starving on a Plentiful Diet?
Researchers from Penn State, published in the February 7, 2007 Cell  
Metabolism, have discovered that when mice are deprived of only a  
single amino acid, their metabolisms are fooled into thinking they  
are starving. In response, they stop synthesizing new fats and they  
use up all their fat stores, losing 97 percent of their body fat in  
the process.

The researchers found that a certain enzyme, called GCN2 eIF2a  
kinase, is the critical player that kicks the body into starvation  
mode. It does this by monitoring deficiencies in amino acids. Removal  
of just a single amino acid, leucine, from the diet of the mice was  
sufficient to trigger GCN2 to start a starvation response. Despite  
the fact that the mice were consuming normal amounts of carbohydrates  
and fats, they shut down fat synthesis in the liver and mobilized  
their stored fat deposits. Their bodies were literally tricked into  
starvation mode by the fact that leucine was missing from the diet.

After 17 days of a leucine-deficient diet, the mice lost 48 percent  
of their liver mass and 97 percent of the adipose or fatty tissue  
from their abdomens. The response was very similar to what happens  
during starvation. In contrast, control mice bred to be missing the  
GCN2 kinase enzyme kept a steady liver mass and lost only 69 percent  
of the adipose tissue on their abdomens



Dx'd 1967, Pumping since 1/14/2004 w/ Animas IR1000, 7/2/2004 -   
Animas IR1200
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