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[IP] Re: smudges
I believe that the "smudges" referred to in the article are ancanthosis
nigricans, which looks exactly like a dirty neck, or ring-around-the-collar,
except the ring is on your neck rather than your shirt.
Ancanthosis Nigricans (AN) is a skin condition that causes a darkening and
thickening of the skin about your neck and other body folds such as the
armpits, groin area and underneath your breasts. The elevated levels of
insulin in your body stimulate the growth of skin in these areas and the
resulting skin is darker skin.
This is an issue for individuals with type 2 diabetes or those with insulin
resistance syndrome, sometimes also referred to as Syndrome X. Because of
the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in children, AN is an early warning
sign of a potential problem. Insulin levels are high due to an insulin
resistance, and these high insulin levels are initially able to keep glucose
levels normal, often for years, before beta cell failure due to glucose
toxicity occurs and diabetes is diagnosis.
For those of you interested, other indicators insulin resistance syndrome or
Syndrome X include:
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), a condition that appears to be caused by
the high levels of insulin as well. PCOS is characterized by infertility, no
menstrual periods and obesity. Just as with ancanthosis nigricans, it is
caused by the elevated insulin levels stimulating a portion of the ovaries to
overproduce male hormones, which throws off the menstrual cycle, in addition
to causing acne and increased hair growth.
Central Obesity means fat around the abdomen instead of obesity associated
with an increase in size of your buttocks and thighs. This obesity more
commonly occurs in men and in postmenopausal women.
High Blood Pressure is caused by the increased levels of circulating insulin
as well. It is estimated that Syndrome X is responsible for the high blood
pressure in one-half of all large-sized people.
Dislipidemia means high levels of triglycerides, low levels of HDL
cholesterol and the presence of small, dense LDL cholesterol molecules.
Heart Attacks and Angina is caused by Syndrome X in over one-half of all
patients seen in the hospital setting.
Family History of Type 2 Diabetes occurs in the majority of people who have
Syndrome X. There may also be a family history of coronary artery disease as
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